In Brazil, you can.
In English speaking countries, not that commom tough.
Even in the Military seems to be used more often to refer to lower ranks when a guy of junior ranks is going to get in a fix (usually as replacement of the ''superior").
Sometimes it is used in this way, not meaning that is very usual.
The militaries of the world, especially the United States military, have a long and strong tradition of military structure that demands that those of lower ranks refer to their superiors in certain ways. If you do not know how to properly address superior officers, you can find yourself being reprimanded or, even worse, "smoked" (put through vigorous physical punishment). It can be a difficult habit to form, but once you get into the rhythm, it will come as second nature to you.
Address noncommissioned officers (NCOs) by standing at parade rest (hands behind your back, legs parted) and referring to them by their rank. For NCOs ranked Staff Sergeant, Sergeant First Class and Master Sergeant, you may address them as simply "Sergeant."
Marines always refer to NCOs by their full rank (i.e., Gunnery Sergeant, Master Gunnery Sergeant, etc.).
Salute commissioned officers (COs) before standing at full attention. All COs, such as lieutenants, captains, colonels and generals, are to be referred to as "sir" or "ma'am." Many female COs are referred to as "sir" simply to respect the rank.
Stand at the position of parade rest when addressing warrant officers (infantry weapons officers for the Marine Corps). All warrant officers in the United States military may be referred to as either "Sir," "Warrant Officer" or "Mister/Missus," depending on unit policy.
In some forces, there may be one or more superior ranks to the common examples above that are given distinguishing titles, such as Field Marshal (many armies), Fleet Admiral (U.S. Navy) or Marshal of the Royal Air Force or other national air force. These ranks have often been discontinued, such as in Germany and Canada or limited to wartime and/or honorific promotion, such as in the United Kingdom and United States
Article 89—Disrespect toward a superior commissioned officer
Here is information about Article 89—Disrespect toward a superior commissioned officer. ... officer” of the accused when either superior in rank or command to the accused; however, ... Uniform Code of Military Justice (UJMJ) - ART. 90. ...
usmilitary.about.com/od/punitivearticles/a/mcm89.htm - Similar
StateMaster - Encyclopedia: Commissioned officer
Jump to US commissioned officer ranks: ... RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... Commander is a military rank used in many navies ... is both a nautical term and a military rank. ...
Lieautenant--French lieu (place) tenant (holder). The Lieutenant normally commands a small tactical unit such as a platoon. A Lieutenant often takes the place of a superior officer when that officer is absent.
Second Lieutenant--The lowest rank of commissioned officer. Note that a Subaltern is a term applied to any officer below the rank of captain, especially a second lieutenant. Derivation from Latin related to the word for alternate.
Lance Corporal- Appointment and not a rank. Junior to a Corporal. From lancepesade "officer of lowest rank, from obsolete French lancepessade, from Old Italian lancia spezzata, superior soldier, literally "broken lance". Originally referred to as a "chosen man" who would take control of the section if the Corporal was to be killed or wounded